Improvement of preventive fireplace safety at a tank farm

Tank farms are used for the storage of extremely flammable and explosive substances; Consequently, preventive hearth protection is of major importance. When rehabilitation of such a tank farm is planned, contractors often advocate extensive – and thus costly – measures. A fire-protection solution developed by TÜV SÜD demonstrates that an equal stage of safety can be reached with a far more cost-effective solution. A central role in injury limitation is played by early hearth detection using thermographic cameras.
Numerous tank farms throughout Germany store petrol, diesel, kerosene or liquefied petroleum fuel (LPG). In contact with air, these extremely flammable substances can type explosive mixtures. Given this, tank farms require special measures within the field of preventive hearth protection. If rehabilitation of fire-protection systems turns into necessary at an older tank farm, far-reaching measures should be taken, not only by means of precaution but additionally to exclude attainable legal responsibility dangers. And yet not each measure that’s technologically feasible can be necessary in case of a rehabilitation, as may be seen from the instance of a tank farm in Bavaria, Germany.
The tank farm is located at a basin of a river port in Bavaria. The part of the tank farm in want of rehabilitation covers 24 tanks with a storage volume of between 600 and a pair of,000 cubic metres. The tank farm is used for intermediate storage of extremely flammable fluids with flame factors of < 21 levels Celsius, as outlined in the German hazardous substances laws. In fireplace inspections and on-site inspections after incidents, the inspectors had identified main non-conformities within the fire-extinguishing system. To exchange the outdated and non-conforming system, an engineering firm submitted an intensive record of measures. These measures fully satisfied all regulatory requirements but represented a really cost-intensive resolution, requiring a full rehabilitation using conventional extinguishing techniques. For the tank-farm working firm, the prices of implementing these measures would have added up to 1.7 million euros.
In fire protection, the problem lies in connecting well-founded technological information and authorized know-how. In apply this means harmonising affordable engineering companies and authorized purposes to obtain a cohesive, economically feasible and simply implemented fire-protection idea.
Alternative resolution developed by TÜV SÜD

At the working company’s request, TÜV SÜD’s third-party experts validated the person measures and the cost-effectiveness of the rehabilitation plan submitted by the engineering agency. Owing to the large variety of deficiencies recognized within the tank farm, the consultants first prepared an inventory of priorities with the measures essential to fulfil the protection necessities and achieve the protection objectives. They arrived at the conclusion that not all the proposed measures truly wanted to be implemented. Starting from this discovering, they then drew up an alternate fire-protection concept that may finally scale back the projected prices by one third.
TÜV SÜD’s rehabilitation plan included the fire-protection infrastructure already in place on the tank farm, similar to a non-automatic foam extinguishing system with a complete foaming-agent supply of 10,500 litres distributed throughout two tanks, two submerged pumps within the port basin with a pump capability of a hundred and eighty m3 per hour to ensure water supply for fire preventing and sprinkling the shells and the roofs of the tanks, manual triggering of the shut-off valves and a transformer station powered by the regional vitality supplier. The feed-in of emergency power was effected by the native professional hearth department.
The engineering firm, against this, had deliberate to replace the complete fire-extinguishing system. They needed to install three cellular extinguishing-agent distribution methods in container type for distant managed sprinkling and foaming of the tanks. This resolution would have required the installation of latest electrical, operational and management systems as properly as new pipe routes connecting the extinguishing-agent distribution systems with the fire-fighting methods in the tank fields. The costs for the three extinguishing-agent distribution systems in container form alone would have added as much as round 1.2 million euros.
Incipient fireplace combating situation with intact energy supply and free access to the tank farm.
Implementation of three packages of measures

The different rehabilitation idea developed by TÜV SÜD, which additionally met the requirements of the Bavarian Building Code (BayBo [1]), supplied for 3 essential packages of measures to achieve the safety and safety aims.
First, set up of a completely computerized infrared measuring system made by DIAS Infrared to ensure early fire detection. The system’s seven thermographic cameras are installed on pan-tilt items. They detect modifications in temperature on the surfaces of the tanks made of different supplies and positioned within the space monitored by the cameras, before these changes in temperature may cause a fireplace. As the cameras can transfer, the areas to be monitored can be divided into sectors. The cameras then strategy these sectors cyclically in sequence. To defend the cameras in opposition to exterior influences, they’re housed in ventilated and heated weatherproof enclosures (Fig. 1). Monitoring focuses primarily on the safety devices of the tanks, pumps and motors and on the filling methods on the tank-farm premises. The control room on the tank farm and the native skilled fireplace department are notified immediately as soon because the temperature exceeds a sure limit. The measure bundle also contains remote triggering of the extinguishing-agent supply from the management centre and automation of the security devices.
Incipient fireplace combating scenario with power loss the place access to the tank farm is blocked by a cargo practice.
In เครื่องมือความดัน , it covers rehabilitation of the sprinkler and foam-extinguisher system. In this context, TÜV SÜD’s resolution offered for replacement of the leaking and corroded pipe sections with new pipes and for installation of three mounted foam-extinguishing systems within the type of foam displays to battle incipient fires immediately. In addition, a cell foam monitor was planned as a backup.
A third focus space issues safeguarding the ability provide required for early hearth detection and hearth fighting. According to the regional vitality provider, power outages may have a length of a minimal of 30 minutes. Given this, the tank-farm needed an independent power supply system that was ready to make sure power provide for at least 2 hours. The experts relied on battery buffering and a diesel operated emergency energy unit to resolve this drawback.
Fire protection must ensure achievement of the protection goals

Protection aims and equal security level reached

The fire-protection solution offered by TÜV SÜD was agreed with each the tank farm’s working company, the municipal authority and the skilled fire department. The three measure packages also complied with the required safety objectives and the protection levels. And finally, they proved far less expensive than the answer initially proposed. Since rehabilitation of the tank farm, early fireplace detection in conjunction with improved fire-protection infrastructure has turn out to be a central a part of injury limitation. Since the rehabilitation concept was applied, the tank-farm’s working firm – working with the professional hearth department – has been capable of effectively counteract all attainable scenarios of incipient fire effectively and at an early stage, even in circumstances of energy loss or when entry to the tank farm is blocked (see Figures 2 and 3).
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Classification under the Bavarian Building Code (Bayerische Bauordnung, BayBo)

Tank farms are installations of a special sort and use (special structures). Their operation entails the dealing with and storing of highly explosive or flammable substances. Protection measures and safety precautions thus not only fall within the operating company’s accountability however are additionally a matter of public interest. Given this, the BayBO stipulates necessities together with material necessities which, as “General clauses of fireplace protection”, assist to help the protection goals outlined in Article 12. However, in accordance with article three (1) deviations from the technical building regulations are attainable if an alternate solution is discovered that’s equivalent by way of fulfilling the general requirements in paragraph 1. In other phrases, the requirements laid down in the Building Code are deemed complied with if the commonly recognised guidelines of architecture and expertise are fulfilled.

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