Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a separation technique that’s suitable for a broad range of purposes, particularly when salt and/or dissolved solids need to be faraway from an answer. It is amongst the commonest kinds of water remedy.
According to Anelia Hough, water therapy consultant at Allmech, leading South African producer of boilers and provider of water remedy components, there are several factors to be considered when choosing an RO system: the customer’s capability requirement (i.e. water usage), the day by day manufacturing capacity of the system, and the percent rejection for particular contaminants in the source water.
“Beyond this, RO crops require correct upkeep and care to ensure they operate optimally and to increase their lifespan,” she says. “Aside from common upkeep, the best way to protect a RO plant is by pre-treating water, which reduces the pressure on the RO membrane – a costly component. It also helps to keep away from points like scaling and bio-fouling.”

Common Issues with RO Plants

“Factors that can have an result on a RO system’s performance embrace temperature, working stress, again pressure, the equilibrium effect/TDS creep, percent recovery, and, after all, the RO membrane’s permeate production and percent rejection scores,” says Hough.
The most typical points in RO plants embody:
• Fouling: occurs when contaminants accumulate on the membrane floor, effectively plugging the membrane. There are many contaminants in municipal feed water which are innocent for human consumption, however large enough to shortly foul (or plug) an RO system.
เพรสเชอร์เกจ4นิ้ว : when particles are deposited on a membrane, causing it to plug. As sure dissolved compounds become more concentrated, scaling can occur if these compounds exceed their solubility limits and precipitate on the membrane floor as scale. Scaling calculations are often solely primarily based on the silicate concentration within the feed water.
• Biofouling: reduces precise membrane performance by way of microbial generation in a biofilm that forms on the membrane floor.
• Chemical harm: on a RO membrane, this implies the next permeate move and poorer quality permeate water. Dosing of oxidant brokers, corresponding to chlorine or hypochlorite, can cut back efficiency and finally end result in the failure of the RO membranes. Use of aggressive cleaners can even cause chemical injury.
• Mechanical damage: can occur when a system is pressurised too rapidly, damaging the RO membrane elements. One of the most clears indicators of damages on a RO membrane is the dearth of salt rejection capabilities. There can be very often a rise of permeate circulate price.
Pre-treatment might help to keep away from these problems, and Hough says there are various choices available.
Pre-treatment Options

“When deciding on a pre-filter, users should at all times look for a verified efficiency score subsequent to the micron dimension on the filter’s technical information sheet,” says Hough.
• Multi Media Filtration: A multi-media filter is used to assist prevent fouling of a RO system. This kind of sediment filtration is ideal for a pre-treatment course of to any reverse osmosis system serving to to ensure long lifetime of the RO membrane components. A well operated multimedia filter can remove particulates down to twenty microns. A multimedia filter that makes use of a coagulant addition can take away particulates right down to 10 microns.
• Micro Filtration: The filters utilized in microfiltration have a pore dimension of approximately 0.1 micron. Bacteria and suspended solids are the only factor that can be eliminated via microfiltration.
• Antiscalants and scale inhibitors: There are many chemical substances that can be used as antiscalants and dispersants to improve the operation of RO. Antiscalants are a family of chemicals designed to inhibit the formation and precipitation of crystallized mineral salts that form scale.
• Softening by ion exchange: A water softener is a filtration system that removes hardness-causing calcium and magnesium minerals from water via a process known as ion exchange. Standard water softeners are cation change gadgets. Cation change entails the substitute of the hardness ions with non-hardness ions.
• Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Filtration: Activated carbon removes residual chlorine and chloramines by a chemical reaction that entails a transfer of electrons from the floor of the GAC to the residual chlorine or chloramines. The chlorine or chloramines end up as a chloride ion that’s not an oxidizer.
“It’s also important to clean the RO membrane frequently,” says Hough. “This includes high and low pH cleaners to take away contaminants from the membrane. We handle scaling with low pH cleaners and organics, while colloidal and biofouling are treated with a high pH cleaner.”

Allmech provides the whole range of pre-treatment and RO membrane maintenance solutions for RO crops, including filtration systems, softeners, antiscalants, chemical substances and other consumables.
“At Allmech, we’re looking ahead to rising this a part of our business in 2022 and past, leveraging our expertise in all things associated to water remedy. We even have a boiler division and we stock a complete vary of Runxin valves, so we’re properly positioned to be a one-stop shop for anybody needing a water therapy or boiler specialist, and we’re expecting a busy year ahead,” Hough says.

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