Temperature Sensor Types

Temperature, as a fundamental and critical environmental parameter, is the temperature vary within which many chemical reactions and organic processes are optimized, and even the efficiency of some electronic circuits is managed by temperature. Therefore, the measurement of temperature plays a pivotal position in experimentation and engineering, and a wide range of methods have been developed for its detection. Overall, temperature measurement and monitoring are key aspects of scientific analysis and engineering applications.
Table of Contents

What is a temperature sensor?

Temperature Sensor Applications

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Thermocouples

Thermistors

Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Thermostat

Thermometers

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

How to choose on a temperature sensor?

How to hold up the temperature sensor?

Summary

What is a temperature sensor?

A temperature sensor is a temperature measuring device. It converts warmth (temperature) right into a readable kind similar to an electrical sign similar to current, voltage or resistance.
Measuring เกจวัดแรงดันแบบแห้ง close up in industry zone

Temperature Sensor Applications

Industrial

Medical area

Environmental monitoring

Electronic equipment

Food and beverage business

Pharmaceutical trade

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature sensors take temperature readings via an electrical sign. They include two metals that produce a change in voltage or resistance when the temperature adjustments. Temperature sensor work is based on measuring the voltage across the terminals of a diode. As the voltage increases, the temperature increases accordingly, at which point there’s a lower in voltage between the terminals and emitter of the transistor.
Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Contact Temperature Sensors

A contact temperature sensor is a sensor that must be in direct contact with the object to be measured in order to measure its temperature. Contact temperature sensors utilize totally different bodily properties (e.g., resistance, voltage, present, and so on.) for temperature measurement, and their modifications can replicate the temperature of the object to be measured.
Thermocouples

Thermocouple temperature sensors are mostly utilized in industrial, automotive, and on a regular basis family purposes. Because they are self-powered, they don’t require excitation, have fast response times, and may operate over the widest temperature ranges (-328 to 3182 °F/-200 °C to 1750 °C). A thermocouple is a hoop of two totally different metal wires wound together to provide a voltage change between the 2 metals that’s proportional to the temperature change.
Thermocouples are made from a selection of completely different materials, allowing temperature sensors to measure different temperature ranges and sensitivities. The most commonly used thermocouple sensor is the K-type, and all different thermocouples are also designated using the letters (J, R, and T).
Thermistors

A thermistor, just like an RTD, is a resistor whose resistance modifications with temperature. They are normally manufactured from a polymer or ceramic coated with a glass floor, which is why they are cheaper and fewer correct than RTDs. There are two main types of thermistors: constructive temperature coefficient (PTC) and unfavorable temperature coefficient (NTC).
Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors are the most common kind and are characterized by a lower in resistance because the temperature will increase. This is as a result of at higher temperatures, the variety of carriers (electrons and holes) within the semiconductor materials increases, which lowers the resistance. Glass-encapsulated thermistors have an operating range of -72.four to 482 °F (-50 to 250 °C), and commonplace thermistors have an working range as excessive as 302 °F (150 °C).
Apure PCT Thermocouple Temperature Transmitters with RTDs and thermocouples are field-installed temperature transformer items with a two-wire method with non-linear correction circuitry for direct measurement in industrial processes.
Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

A Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is a temperature sensor that operates on the principle of measuring temperature by utilizing the property of resistance to vary with temperature. The resistance of a metallic conductor is proportional to its absolute temperature over a given temperature range. The corresponding temperature could be decided by measuring the resistance.RTDs are usually made from pure metals, particularly platinum, which has superb stability and linearity over a large temperature range.
RTD Configuration:
Two-wire: Used when lead lengths are brief sufficient that resistance does not affect accuracy.
Three-wire: This configuration adds an RTD probe to carry the excitation current, thus providing a approach to eliminate line resistance.
Four-wire: This wire eliminates line resistance by combining separate force and sense leads. This is essentially the most correct configuration.
Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

AdvantagesDisadvantages

High precisionLow sensitivity

Linear outputHigher price

Long-term stabilityHigher requirements for present sources

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD Table

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Semiconductor-based temperature sensors are usually built-in into integrated circuits (ICs). Two equivalent diodes with temperature-sensitive voltages monitor temperature changes. IC sensors have a linear response, however they’ve the lowest temperature sensor accuracy. This is because ICs have the slowest response over a slender temperature vary (- -70 °C to 150 °C).
There are two forms of IC:
Local Temperature Sensors: measure temperature utilizing the physical properties of transistors. They can use analog or digital outputs.
Remote digital temperature sensors: measure the temperature of an exterior transistor. The transistor is located away from the sensor chip.
Thermostat

A thermostat is a device that automatically adjusts the temperature, normally based mostly on readings from temperature sensors (such as thermocouples, thermistors, or temperature-sensitive capacitors) that measure the temperature of the environment. When the measured temperature exceeds or falls under a set level, the thermostat prompts or shuts down heating or cooling equipment to keep up the desired temperature.
There are many forms of thermostats available, including knob-type, digital, programmable, and sensible thermostats to meet the wants of different customers.
Thermometers

Bimetallic thermometer is a mechanical gadget for measuring temperature that takes advantage of the truth that two different metals have completely different coefficients of thermal enlargement. When the temperature modifications, the 2 metals in the bimetal broaden or contract at totally different rates. Since the two metals are tightly bound collectively, this distinction causes the whole bimetal to bend. In thermometers, this bimetal is often made right into a spiral or curved shape. As the temperature changes, the diploma of bimetal bending adjustments, and this change could be read directly as a change in temperature.
Bimetal thermometers for temperature measurement

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-contact temperature sensors are used to measure the temperature of an object without direct contact with the goal floor. They rely on the thermal power radiated by the object to measure temperature, the most typical type being infrared (IR) temperature sensors.
Infrared temperature sensors: These sensors measure the depth of infrared radiation emitted by a target object to find out its temperature. They are perfect for use when an object is moving or the temperature is just too excessive or too low, as they don’t want to come back into contact with the item itself.
Thermal imaging cameras: Thermal imaging cameras are additionally infrared sensors that measure and produce a two-dimensional picture of the temperature distribution on the surface of an object.
Non-contact temperature sensors are utilized in a wide variety of business and scientific applications, including temperature control of digital gadgets, monitoring of chemical reactions, food high quality management, and medical diagnostics.
Non-contact infrared sensors measure the temperature of business instruments

How to choose a temperature sensor?

Measuring range: Different temperature sensors have different measuring ranges. First determine the temperature vary that needs to be measured, and choose a sensor that can meet this vary.
Accuracy: Accuracy is another essential selection issue for temperature sensors. Different sensor types have totally different accuracies. Typically, RTDs and thermistors have greater accuracies, while thermocouples have lower accuracies.
Environment: Temperature sensors are affected by their working setting, similar to humidity, corrosive substances, excessive strain and other environmental circumstances.
Application: Application eventualities require a quick response to temperature adjustments, so it is very important select a sensor with a quick response time.
Valve stem (sheath): Thermocouples and RTDs are supplied with 316 stainless steel rods and inner wiring coated with powdered ceramic. Screw head kinds are available in two stem varieties: spring-loaded and welded. The spring-loaded stem is mounted to the bottom of the thermocouple sleeve for optimum thermal sensitivity. Welded stems are perfect for liquid applications.
How to keep up the temperature sensor?

Periodic Sensor Cleaning

Periodic calibration

Check electrical connections

Avoid excessive environments

Record and analyze data

Summary

Which temperature sensor to make use of depends on your application and business, if you have any questions about temperature sensors or want temperature transmitter, be happy to contact Apure professional and technical staff to offer a solution. We also offer devices for water high quality evaluation, flow meters, stage measurement, pressure measurement, ozone turbines and temperature controller.
Extended studying:
Dissolved Oxygen Probe How It Works?

Surface Water vs Groundwater

What Is Municipal Water?

Types of degree measurement transmitters
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Temperature, as a fundamental and significant environmental parameter, is the temperature range inside which many chemical reactions and biological processes are optimized, and even the efficiency of some digital circuits is managed by temperature. Therefore, the measurement of temperature performs a pivotal role in experimentation and engineering, and a wide selection of strategies have been developed for its detection. Overall, temperature measurement and monitoring are key elements of scientific analysis and engineering functions.
Table of Contents

What is a temperature sensor?

Temperature Sensor Applications

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Thermocouples

Thermistors

Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Thermostat

Thermometers

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

How to choose on a temperature sensor?

How to maintain the temperature sensor?

Summary

What is a temperature sensor?

A temperature sensor is a temperature measuring gadget. It converts heat (temperature) right into a readable form such as an electrical signal similar to present, voltage or resistance.
Measuring instrument close up in industry zone

Temperature Sensor Applications

Industrial

Medical area

Environmental monitoring

Electronic gear

Food and beverage trade

Pharmaceutical industry

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature sensors take temperature readings via an electrical sign. They include two metals that produce a change in voltage or resistance when the temperature changes. Temperature sensor work is based on measuring the voltage throughout the terminals of a diode. As the voltage increases, the temperature will increase accordingly, at which point there is a lower in voltage between the terminals and emitter of the transistor.
Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Contact Temperature Sensors

A contact temperature sensor is a sensor that must be in direct contact with the item to be measured so as to measure its temperature. Contact temperature sensors utilize completely different physical properties (e.g., resistance, voltage, current, and so forth.) for temperature measurement, and their changes can replicate the temperature of the thing to be measured.
Thermocouples

Thermocouple temperature sensors are mostly used in industrial, automotive, and everyday family applications. Because they’re self-powered, they don’t require excitation, have fast response occasions, and can function over the widest temperature ranges (-328 to 3182 °F/-200 °C to 1750 °C). A thermocouple is a hoop of two completely different metal wires wound together to provide a voltage change between the two metals that is proportional to the temperature change.
Thermocouples are made from numerous completely different supplies, permitting temperature sensors to measure totally different temperature ranges and sensitivities. The mostly used thermocouple sensor is the K-type, and all other thermocouples are also designated using the letters (J, R, and T).
Thermistors

A thermistor, much like an RTD, is a resistor whose resistance changes with temperature. They are normally made from a polymer or ceramic lined with a glass surface, which is why they are cheaper and fewer accurate than RTDs. There are two main kinds of thermistors: constructive temperature coefficient (PTC) and adverse temperature coefficient (NTC).
Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors are the most typical kind and are characterised by a decrease in resistance because the temperature increases. This is as a result of at larger temperatures, the variety of carriers (electrons and holes) within the semiconductor materials will increase, which lowers the resistance. Glass-encapsulated thermistors have an working range of -72.four to 482 °F (-50 to 250 °C), and commonplace thermistors have an operating vary as high as 302 °F (150 °C).
Apure PCT Thermocouple Temperature Transmitters with RTDs and thermocouples are field-installed temperature transformer items with a two-wire method with non-linear correction circuitry for direct measurement in industrial processes.
Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

A Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is a temperature sensor that operates on the precept of measuring temperature by using the property of resistance to change with temperature. The resistance of a metallic conductor is proportional to its absolute temperature over a given temperature vary. The corresponding temperature could be determined by measuring the resistance.RTDs are normally made from pure metals, particularly platinum, which has superb stability and linearity over a big temperature vary.
RTD Configuration:
Two-wire: Used when lead lengths are brief sufficient that resistance does not affect accuracy.
Three-wire: This configuration adds an RTD probe to carry the excitation present, thus providing a method to eliminate line resistance.
Four-wire: This wire eliminates line resistance by combining separate drive and sense leads. This is the most correct configuration.
Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

AdvantagesDisadvantages

High precisionLow sensitivity

Linear outputHigher worth

Long-term stabilityHigher requirements for present sources

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD Table

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Semiconductor-based temperature sensors are normally integrated into built-in circuits (ICs). Two identical diodes with temperature-sensitive voltages monitor temperature modifications. IC sensors have a linear response, but they’ve the bottom temperature sensor accuracy. This is as a outcome of ICs have the slowest response over a slender temperature range (- -70 °C to 150 °C).
There are two types of IC:
Local Temperature Sensors: measure temperature using the physical properties of transistors. They can use analog or digital outputs.
Remote digital temperature sensors: measure the temperature of an exterior transistor. The transistor is positioned away from the sensor chip.
Thermostat

A thermostat is a device that mechanically adjusts the temperature, usually primarily based on readings from temperature sensors (such as thermocouples, thermistors, or temperature-sensitive capacitors) that measure the temperature of the environment. When the measured temperature exceeds or falls under a set point, the thermostat prompts or shuts down heating or cooling gear to maintain the specified temperature.
There are many kinds of thermostats obtainable, together with knob-type, digital, programmable, and sensible thermostats to satisfy the needs of various users.
Thermometers

Bimetallic thermometer is a mechanical gadget for measuring temperature that takes benefit of the fact that two totally different metals have totally different coefficients of thermal growth. When the temperature modifications, the two metals within the bimetal expand or contract at completely different charges. Since the 2 metals are tightly certain together, this difference causes the entire bimetal to bend. In thermometers, this bimetal is usually made into a spiral or curved form. As the temperature adjustments, the diploma of bimetal bending adjustments, and this alteration could be read directly as a change in temperature.
Bimetal thermometers for temperature measurement

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-contact temperature sensors are used to measure the temperature of an object with out direct contact with the goal floor. They depend on the thermal power radiated by the item to measure temperature, the most typical kind being infrared (IR) temperature sensors.
Infrared temperature sensors: These sensors measure the depth of infrared radiation emitted by a target object to determine its temperature. They are perfect for use when an object is shifting or the temperature is too high or too low, as they do not want to come back into contact with the thing itself.
Thermal imaging cameras: Thermal imaging cameras are also infrared sensors that measure and produce a two-dimensional image of the temperature distribution on the floor of an object.
Non-contact temperature sensors are utilized in a extensive variety of business and scientific applications, including temperature management of digital gadgets, monitoring of chemical reactions, food high quality control, and medical diagnostics.
Non-contact infrared sensors measure the temperature of business devices

How to choose a temperature sensor?

Measuring vary: Different temperature sensors have different measuring ranges. First decide the temperature vary that needs to be measured, and choose a sensor that can meet this vary.
Accuracy: Accuracy is one other necessary choice factor for temperature sensors. Different sensor sorts have totally different accuracies. Typically, RTDs and thermistors have higher accuracies, whereas thermocouples have decrease accuracies.
Environment: Temperature sensors are affected by their working setting, corresponding to humidity, corrosive substances, excessive stress and different environmental conditions.
Application: Application eventualities require a quick response to temperature changes, so you will need to choose a sensor with a fast response time.
Valve stem (sheath): Thermocouples and RTDs are equipped with 316 chrome steel rods and inner wiring coated with powdered ceramic. Screw head styles are available in two stem varieties: spring-loaded and welded. The spring-loaded stem is mounted to the underside of the thermocouple sleeve for optimum thermal sensitivity. Welded stems are good for liquid purposes.
How to maintain the temperature sensor?

Periodic Sensor Cleaning

Periodic calibration

Check electrical connections

Avoid excessive environments

Record and analyze information

Summary

Which temperature sensor to make use of depends on your application and trade, if you have any questions about temperature sensors or want temperature transmitter, be happy to contact Apure professional and technical staff to offer an answer. We also provide devices for water high quality analysis, move meters, level measurement, stress measurement, ozone generators and temperature controller.
Extended studying:
Dissolved Oxygen Probe How It Works?

Surface Water vs Groundwater

What Is Municipal Water?

Types of stage measurement transmitters

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